the itis logo The report logo for the ITIS data page
Go to Print Version

Cervus elaphus  Linnaeus, 1758
Taxonomic Serial No.: 180695

(Download Help) Cervus elaphus TSN 180695

 Taxonomy and Nomenclature
       
  Kingdom: Animalia  
  Taxonomic Rank: Species  
  Synonym(s):    
  Common Name(s): elk [English]
 
    wapiti [English]
 
    Ciervo común [Spanish]
 
    wapiti or elk [English]
 
    wapiti [French]
 
    Red Deer (see comments) [English]
 
       
  Taxonomic Status:    
  Current Standing: valid  
       
  Data Quality Indicators:    
  Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met  
       

 Taxonomic Hierarchy
       
 KingdomAnimalia  – Animal, animaux, animals  
    SubkingdomBilateria   
       InfrakingdomDeuterostomia   
          PhylumChordata  – cordés, cordado, chordates  
             SubphylumVertebrata  – vertebrado, vertébrés, vertebrates  
                InfraphylumGnathostomata   
                   SuperclassTetrapoda   
                      ClassMammalia Linnaeus, 1758 – mammifères, mamífero, mammals  
                         SubclassTheria Parker and Haswell, 1897  
                            InfraclassEutheria Gill, 1872  
                               OrderArtiodactyla Owen, 1848 – artiodactyls, porco do mato, veado, cloven-hoofed ungulates, even-toed ungulates  
                                  FamilyCervidae Goldfuss, 1820 – cervids, caribou, deer, moose, wapiti  
                                     SubfamilyCervinae Goldfuss, 1820  
                                        GenusCervus Linnaeus, 1758 – red deer, deer, wapiti  
                                           SpeciesCervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 – elk, wapiti, Ciervo común, wapiti or elk, wapiti, Red Deer (see comments)  
    Direct Children:  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus alashanicus Bobrinskii and Flerov, 1935  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus atlanticus Lönnberg, 1906  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus barbarus Bennett, 1833 – Barbary deer, Barbary stag 
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus brauneri Charlemagne, 1920  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus canadensis Erxleben, 1777  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus corsicanus Erxleben, 1777 – Corsican red deer 
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 – wapiti 
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus hanglu Wagner, 1844 – Kashmir stag 
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus hispanicus Hilzheimer, 1909  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus kansuensis Pocock, 1912  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus macneilli Lydekker, 1909 – McNeill's deer 
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus maral Gray, 1850  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus nannodes Merriam, 1905  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus pannoniensis Banwell, 1997  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus songaricus Severtzov, 1873  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus wallichii G. Cuvier, 1823 – Shou 
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus xanthopygus Milne-Edwards, 1867  
                                              Subspecies Cervus elaphus yarkandensis Blanford, 1892 – Yarkand deer 
       

 References
       
  Expert(s):    
  Expert: Alfred L. Gardner  
  Notes: Curator of North American mammals and Chief of Mammal Section, National Biological Service, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA   
  Reference for: Cervus elaphus    
       
  Expert: Peter Grubb  
  Notes: 35 Downhills Park Road, London N17 6PE, England   
  Reference for: Cervus elaphus    
       
  Other Source(s):    
  Source: CDP, database (version 1999)  
  Acquired: 2003   
  Notes:    
  Reference for: wapiti or elk[English], wapiti [French]   
       
  Source: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, database (version undefined)  
  Acquired: 2001   
  Notes: CONABIO: (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/)   
  Reference for: Ciervo común[Spanish]   
       
  Source: NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0)  
  Acquired: 1996   
  Notes:    
  Reference for: Cervus elaphus   
       
  Publication(s):    
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner  
  Publication Date: 1987   
  Article/Chapter Title: Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Resource Publication, no. 166   
  Page(s): 79   
  Publisher: United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service   
  Publication Place: Washington, D.C., USA   
  ISBN/ISSN:    
  Notes:    
  Reference for: Cervus elaphus   
       
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds.  
  Publication Date: 1993   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing   
  Page(s): xviii + 1207   
  Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Press   
  Publication Place: Washington, DC, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 1-56098-217-9   
  Notes: Corrections were made to text at 3rd printing   
  Reference for: Cervus elaphus   
       
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds.  
  Publication Date: 2005   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2   
  Page(s): 2142   
  Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press   
  Publication Place: Baltimore, Maryland, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 0-8018-8221-4   
  Notes:    
  Reference for: Cervus elaphus   
       
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole  
  Publication Date: 2000   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Common Names of Mammals of the World   
  Page(s): xiv + 204   
  Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Press   
  Publication Place: Washington, DC, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 1-56098-383-3   
  Notes: With contributions by Bernadette N. Graham, Adam P. Potter, and Mariana M. Upmeyer   
  Reference for: Cervus elaphus, elk [English]   
       

 Geographic Information
       
  Geographic Division: Middle America  
    South America  
    Southern Asia  
    Africa  
    Australia  
    Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China)  
    North America  
       
  Jurisdiction/Origin: Continental US, Native & Introduced  
    Canada, Native & Introduced  
 

 

   

 Comments
       
  Comment: Includes C. merriami and C. nannodes  
    Status: CITES - Appendix I as C. e. hanglu; Appendix II as C. e. bactrianus; Appendix III (Tunisia) as C. e. barbarus. U.S. ESA - Endangered as C. e. bactrianus, C. e. barbarus, C. e. corsicanus, C. e. hanglu, C. e. macneilli, C. e. wallichi, and C. e. yarkan  
    Comments: European and North American populations are known as Red Deer and Elk (Wapiti) respectively; neither is suited as the name for the whole species; "maral", a Mongolian name widely used for Asiatic members of the species could be selected but is unlikely to be acceptable; for history and meaning of "maral", see Oswald (2002). Reviewed by Dolan (1988) and Geist (1998). Following Geist (1998) in part, subspecies modified from Groves and Grubb (1987) who recognised divisions of the species including nominate elaphus division or Red Deer sensu stricto (including also...  
 

 

   

 other off-site resources
       
 

Additional off-site resources may be available for this taxon. ITIS will build search links for all of the following that return results:

  • Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal
  • BioOne Journals
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Entrez Life Sciences Search
  • Google Images
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of Wild Fauna and Flora Search
  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) Search
  • Threatened and Endangered Species (TESS) Search
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) Search
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Search
  • USDA PLANTS Database Search
  • NatureServe Explorer Search

Please be patient. The time it takes to return results depends on the speed of the individual sites and may take several minutes.


 
 
   

A gray graphic bar
Search on:  Any Name or TSN  Common Name  Scientific Name  TSN
In:  Kingdom    


Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. While every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and up-to-date information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in provisions of treaties to which the United States is a party, wildlife statutes, regulations, and any applicable notices that have been published in the Federal Register. For further information on U.S. legal requirements with respect to protected taxa, please contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

A gray bar