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Publication: Williams, James D., Melvin L. Warren, Kevin S. Cummings, John L. Harris, and Richard J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of the freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries, vol. 18, no. 9. 6-22.

ITIS records citing this publication
 
 Kingdom Animalia
  Alasmidonta arcula (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- Altamaha arcmussel
  Alasmidonta atropurpurea (Rafinesque, 1831) -- valid -- Cumberland elktoe
  Alasmidonta heterodon (Lea, 1829) -- valid -- dwarf wedge mussel, dwarf wedgemussel
  Alasmidonta marginata Say, 1818 -- valid -- elktoe
  Alasmidonta mccordi Athearn, 1964 -- valid -- Coosa elktoe
  Alasmidonta raveneliana (Lea, 1834) -- valid -- Appalachian elktoe
  Alasmidonta robusta Clarke, 1981 -- valid -- Carolina elktoe
  Alasmidonta undulata (Say, 1817) -- valid -- triangle floater
  Alasmidonta varicosa (Lamarck, 1819) -- valid -- brook floater
  Alasmidonta viridis (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- slippershell mussel
  Alasmidonta wrightiana (Walker, 1901) -- valid -- Ochlockonee arcmussel
  Amblema neislerii (Lea, 1858) -- valid -- fat three-ridge, fat threeridge
  Amblema plicata (Say, 1817) -- valid -- three-ridge, threeridge
  Amphinaias asperata (Lea, 1861) -- valid -- Alabama orb
  Amphinaias aurea (Lea, 1859) -- valid -- golden orb
  Amphinaias couchiana (Lea, 1860) -- valid -- Rio Grande monkeyface
  Amphinaias houstonensis (Lea, 1859) -- valid -- smooth pimpleback
  Amphinaias infucata (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- sculptured pigtoe
  Amphinaias nodulata (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- wartyback
  Amphinaias petrina (Gould, 1855) -- valid -- Texas pimpleback
  Amphinaias pustulosa (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- pimpleback
  Amphinaias refulgens (Lea, 1868) -- valid -- purple pimpleback
  Amphinaias succissa (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- purple pigtoe
  Anodonta californiensis Lea, 1852 -- valid -- California floater
  Anodonta kennerlyi Lea, 1860 -- valid -- western floater
  Anodonta nuttalliana Lea, 1838 -- valid -- winged floater
  Anodonta oregonensis Lea, 1838 -- valid -- Oregon floater
  Anodontoides ferussacianus (Lea, 1834) -- valid -- cylindrical papershell
  Anodontoides radiatus (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- rayed creekshell
  Arcidens confragosus (Say, 1829) -- valid -- rock pocketbook
  Arcidens wheeleri (Ortmann & Walker, 1912) -- valid -- Ouachita rock pocketbook, Wheeler's pearly mussel
  Cyclonaias tuberculata (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- purple wartyback
  Cyprogenia aberti (Conrad, 1850) -- valid -- western fanshell
  Cyprogenia stegaria (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- fanshell
  Dromus dromas (Lea, 1834) -- valid -- dromedary pearly mussel
  Ellipsaria lineolata (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- butterfly
  Elliptio ahenea (Lea, 1845) -- valid -- southern lance
  Elliptio angustata (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- Carolina lance
  Elliptio arca (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- Alabama spike
  Elliptio arctata (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- delicate spike
  Elliptio chipolaensis (Walker, 1905) -- valid -- Chipola slabshell
  Elliptio cistellaeformis (Lea, 1863) -- valid -- box spike
  Elliptio complanata (Lightfoot, 1786) -- valid -- eastern elliptio
  Elliptio congaraea (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- Carolina slabshell
  Elliptio crassidens (Lamarck, 1819) -- valid -- elephant-ear, elephantear
  Elliptio dariensis (Lea, 1842) -- valid -- Georgia elephantear
  Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- spike
  Elliptio downiei (Lea, 1858) -- valid -- Satilla elephantear
  Elliptio fisheriana (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- northern lance
  Elliptio folliculata (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- pod lance
  Elliptio fraterna (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- brother spike
  Elliptio hopetonensis (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- Altamaha slabshell
  Elliptio icterina (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- variable spike
  Elliptio jayensis (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- flat spike
  Elliptio lanceolata (Lea, 1828) -- valid -- yellow lance
  Elliptio marsupiobesa Fuller, 1972 -- valid -- Cape Fear spike
  Elliptio mcmichaeli Clench & Turner, 1956 -- valid -- fluted elephantear
  Elliptio nigella (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- winged spike
  Elliptio producta (Conrad, 1836) -- valid -- Atlantic spike
  Elliptio raveneli (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- Carolina spike
  Elliptio roanokensis (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- Roanoke slabshell
  Elliptio shepardiana (Lea, 1834) -- valid -- Altamaha lance
  Elliptio spinosa (Lea, 1836) -- valid -- Altamaha spinymussel
  Elliptio steinstansana R.I. Johnson & Clarke, 1983 -- valid -- Tar River spinymussel, Tar spinymussel
  Elliptio waccamawensis (Lea, 1863) -- valid -- Waccamaw spike
  Elliptoideus sloatianus (Lea, 1840) -- valid -- purple bankclimber
  Epioblasma arcaeformis (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- sugarspoon
  Epioblasma biemarginata (Lea, 1857) -- valid -- angled riffleshell
  Epioblasma brevidens (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- Cumberlandian combshell
  Epioblasma capsaeformis (Lea, 1834) -- valid -- oyster mussel
  Epioblasma flexuosa (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- leafshell
  Epioblasma florentina (Lea, 1857) -- valid -- yellow blossom
  Epioblasma haysiana (Lea, 1834) -- valid -- acornshell
  Epioblasma lenior (Lea, 1842) -- valid -- narrow catspaw
  Epioblasma lewisii (Walker, 1910) -- valid -- forkshell
  Epioblasma metastriata (Conrad, 1838) -- valid -- upland combshell
  Epioblasma obliquata (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- catspaw, purple cat's paw pearly mussel
  Epioblasma othcaloogensis (Lea, 1857) -- valid -- southern acornshell
  Epioblasma penita (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- penitent mussel, southern combshell
  Epioblasma personata (Say, 1829) -- valid -- round combshell
  Epioblasma propinqua (Lea, 1857) -- valid -- Tennessee riffleshell
  Epioblasma rangiana (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- northern riffleshell
  Epioblasma sampsonii (Lea, 1862) -- valid -- Wabash riffleshell
  Epioblasma stewardsonii (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- Cumberland leafshell
  Epioblasma torulosa (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- tubercled blossom
  Epioblasma triquetra (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- snuffbox
  Epioblasma turgidula (Lea, 1858) -- valid -- turgid blossom, turgid blossom pearly mussel
  Fusconaia askewi (Marsh, 1896) -- valid -- Texas pigtoe
  Fusconaia burkei (Walker in Ortmann & Walker, 1922) -- valid -- tapered pigtoe
  Fusconaia cerina (Conrad, 1838) -- valid -- southern pigtoe
  Fusconaia cor (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- shiny pigtoe
  Fusconaia cuneolus (Lea, 1840) -- valid -- fine-rayed pigtoe
  Fusconaia ebena (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- ebonyshell
  Fusconaia escambia Clench & Turner, 1956 -- valid -- narrow pigtoe
  Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- Wabash pigtoe
  Fusconaia lananensis (Frierson, 1901) -- valid -- triangle pigtoe
  Fusconaia masoni (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- Atlantic pigtoe
  Fusconaia mitchelli (Simpson in Dall, 1896) -- valid -- false spike
  Fusconaia ozarkensis (Call, 1887) -- valid -- Ozark pigtoe
  Fusconaia rotulata (B.H. Wright, 1899) -- valid -- round ebonyshell
  Fusconaia subrotunda (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- long-solid, longsolid
  Glebula rotundata (Lamarck, 1819) -- valid -- round pearlshell
  Gonidea angulata (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- western ridged mussel
  Hamiota altilis (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- finelined pocketbook
  Hamiota australis (Simpson, 1900) -- valid -- southern sandshell
  Hamiota perovalis (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- orange-nacre mucket, orangenacre mucket
  Hamiota subangulata (Lea, 1840) -- valid -- shiny-rayed pocketbook
  Hemistena lata (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- cracking pearly mussel
  Lampsilis abrupta (Say, 1831) -- valid -- pink mucket
  Lampsilis binominata Simpson, 1900 -- valid -- lined pocketbook
  Lampsilis bracteata (Gould, 1855) -- valid -- Texas fatmucket
  Lampsilis cardium Rafinesque, 1820 -- valid -- plain pocketbook
  Lampsilis cariosa (Say, 1817) -- valid -- yellow lampmussel
  Lampsilis dolabraeformis (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- Altamaha pocketbook
  Lampsilis fasciola Rafinesque, 1820 -- valid -- wavy-rayed lampmussel, wavyrayed lampmussel
  Lampsilis fullerkati R.I. Johnson, 1984 -- valid -- Waccamaw fatmucket
  Lampsilis higginsii (Lea, 1857) -- valid -- Higgins' eye, Higgins' eye pearly mussel
  Lampsilis hydiana (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- Louisiana fatmucket
  Lampsilis ornata (Conrad, 1835) -- valid -- southern pocketbook
  Lampsilis ovata (Say, 1817) -- valid -- pocketbook
  Lampsilis powellii (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- Arkansas fatmucket
  Lampsilis radiata (Gmelin, 1791) -- valid -- eastern lampmussel
  Lampsilis rafinesqueana Frierson, 1927 -- valid -- Neosho mucket
  Lampsilis reeveiana (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- Arkansas broken-ray
  Lampsilis satura (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- sandbank pocketbook
  Lampsilis siliquoidea (Barnes, 1823) -- valid -- fatmucket
  Lampsilis splendida (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- rayed pink fatmucket
  Lampsilis straminea (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- rough fatmucket
  Lampsilis streckeri Frierson, 1927 -- valid -- speckled pocketbook
  Lampsilis teres (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- yellow sandshell
  Lampsilis virescens (Lea, 1858) -- valid -- Alabama lamp mussel, Alabama lamp pearly mussel, Alabama lampmussel
  Lasmigona alabamensis Clarke, 1985 -- valid
  Lasmigona complanata (Barnes, 1823) -- valid -- white heelsplitter
  Lasmigona compressa (Lea, 1829) -- valid -- creek heelsplitter
  Lasmigona costata (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- fluted-shell, flutedshell
  Lasmigona decorata (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- Carolina heelsplitter
  Lasmigona holstonia (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- Tennessee heelsplitter
  Lasmigona subviridis (Conrad, 1835) -- valid -- green floater
  Lemiox rimosus (Rafinesque, 1831) -- valid -- birdwing pearly mussel
  Leptodea fragilis (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- fragile papershell
  Leptodea leptodon (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- scaleshell
  Leptodea ochracea (Say, 1817) -- valid -- tidewater mucket
  Ligumia nasuta (Say, 1817) -- valid -- eastern pondmussel
  Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819) -- valid -- black sandshell
  Ligumia subrostrata (Say, 1831) -- valid -- pondmussel
  Margaritifera falcata (Gould, 1850) -- valid -- western pearlshell
  Margaritifera hembeli (Conrad, 1838) -- valid -- Louisiana pearlshell
  Margaritifera marrianae R.I. Johnson, 1983 -- valid -- Alabama pearlshell
  Margaritifera monodonta (Say, 1829) -- valid -- spectaclecase
  Medionidus acutissimus (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- Alabama moccasinshell
  Medionidus conradicus (Lea, 1834) -- valid -- Cumberland moccasinshell
  Medionidus parvulus (Lea, 1860) -- valid -- Coosa moccasinshell
  Medionidus penicillatus (Lea, 1857) -- valid -- Gulf moccasinshell
  Medionidus simpsonianus Walker, 1905 -- valid -- Ochlockonee moccasinshell
  Medionidus walkeri (S.H. Wright, 1897) -- valid -- Suwannee moccasinshell
  Megalonaias nervosa (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- washboard
  Obliquaria reflexa Rafinesque, 1820 -- valid -- three-horn wartyback, threehorn wartyback
  Obovaria arkansasensis (Lea, 1862) -- valid -- Ouachita creekshell
  Obovaria choctawensis (Athearn, 1964) -- valid -- Choctaw bean
  Obovaria haddletoni (Athearn, 1964) -- valid -- Haddleton lampmussel
  Obovaria olivaria (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- hickorynut
  Obovaria retusa (Lamarck, 1819) -- valid -- golf stick pearly mussel, ring pink, ring pink mussel
  Obovaria subrotunda (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- round hickorynut
  Obovaria unicolor (Lea, 1845) -- valid -- Alabama hickorynut
  Ortmanniana ligamentina (Lamarck, 1819) -- valid -- mucket
  Ortmanniana pectorosa (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- pheasantshell
  Pegias fabula (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- little-wing pearly mussel
  Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes in Humboldt & Bonpland, 1827) -- valid -- bankclimber
  Plethobasus cicatricosus (Say, 1829) -- valid -- white wartyback, white wartyback pearly mussel
  Plethobasus cooperianus (Lea, 1834) -- valid -- orange-footed pearly mussel, orangefoot pimpleback
  Plethobasus cyphyus (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- sheepnose
  Pleurobema altum (Conrad, 1854) -- invalid -- highnut
  Pleurobema beadleianum (Lea, 1861) -- valid -- Mississippi pigtoe
  Pleurobema clava (Lamarck, 1819) -- valid -- clubshell
  Pleurobema collina (Conrad, 1837) -- valid -- James River spinymussel, James spinymussel, Virginia spinymussel
  Pleurobema cordatum (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- Ohio pigtoe
  Pleurobema curtum (Lea, 1859) -- valid -- black clubshell, Curtus' mussel
  Pleurobema decisum (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- southern clubshell
  Pleurobema georgianum (Lea, 1841) -- valid -- southern pigtoe
  Pleurobema hanleyianum (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- Georgia pigtoe
  Pleurobema marshalli Frierson, 1927 -- valid -- flat pigtoe, Marshall's mussel
  Pleurobema oviforme (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- Tennessee clubshell
  Pleurobema perovatum (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- ovate clubshell
  Pleurobema plenum (Lea, 1840) -- valid -- rough pigtoe
  Pleurobema pyriforme (Lea, 1857) -- valid -- oval pigtoe
  Pleurobema riddellii (Lea, 1862) -- valid -- Louisiana pigtoe
  Pleurobema rubellum (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- Warrior pigtoe
  Pleurobema rubrum (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- pyramid pigtoe
  Pleurobema sintoxia (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- round pigtoe
  Pleurobema stabilis (Lea, 1861) -- invalid -- Coosa pigtoe
  Pleurobema strodeanum (B.H. Wright, 1898) -- valid -- fuzzy pigtoe
  Pleurobema taitianum (Lea, 1834) -- valid -- heavy pigtoe, Judge Tait's mussel
  Pleurobema verum (Lea, 1861) -- valid -- true pigtoe
  Pleuronaia barnesiana (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- Tennessee pigtoe
  Pleuronaia dolabelloides (Lea, 1840) -- valid -- slabside pearly mussel
  Pleuronaia gibbera (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- Cumberland pigtoe, Cumberland pigtoe mussel
  Potamilus alatus (Say, 1817) -- valid -- pink heelsplitter
  Potamilus amphichaenus (Frierson, 1898) -- valid -- Texas heelsplitter
  Potamilus capax (Green, 1832) -- valid -- fat pocketbook
  Potamilus inflatus (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- Alabama heelsplitter, inflated heelsplitter
  Potamilus ohiensis (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- pink papershell
  Potamilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) -- valid -- bleufer
  Ptychobranchus fasciolaris (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- kidneyshell
  Ptychobranchus greenii (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- triangular kidneyshell
  Ptychobranchus jonesi (van der Schalie, 1934) -- valid -- southern kidneyshell
  Ptychobranchus occidentalis (Conrad, 1836) -- valid -- Ouachita kidneyshell
  Ptychobranchus subtentum (Say, 1825) -- invalid -- fluted kidneyshell
  Pyganodon cataracta (Say, 1817) -- valid -- eastern floater
  Pyganodon fragilis (Lamarck, 1819) -- valid -- Newfoundland floater
  Pyganodon gibbosa (Say, 1824) -- valid -- inflated floater
  Pyganodon implicata (Say, 1829) -- valid -- alewife floater
  Quadrula apiculata (Say, 1829) -- valid -- southern mapleleaf
  Quadrula fragosa (Conrad, 1836) -- valid -- winged mapleleaf, winged mapleleaf mussel
  Quadrula quadrula (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- mapleleaf
  Quadrula rumphiana (Lea, 1852) -- valid -- ridged mapleleaf
  Simpsonaias ambigua (Say, 1825) -- valid -- salamander mussel
  Strophitus connasaugaensis (Lea, 1858) -- valid -- Alabama creekmussel
  Strophitus subvexus (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- southern creekmussel
  Strophitus undulatus (Say, 1817) -- valid -- creeper, squawfoot
  Theliderma cylindrica (Say, 1817) -- valid -- rabbitsfoot
  Theliderma intermedia (Conrad, 1836) -- valid -- Cumberland monkeyface, Cumberland monkeyface pearly mussel
  Theliderma metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- monkeyface
  Theliderma sparsa (Lea, 1841) -- valid -- Appalachian monkeyface, Appalachian monkeyface pearly mussel
  Theliderma stapes (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- stirrup shell, stirrupshell
  Toxolasma corvunculus (Lea, 1868) -- valid -- southern purple lilliput
  Toxolasma cylindrellus (Lea, 1868) -- valid -- pale lilliput, pale lilliput pearly mussel
  Toxolasma lividum Rafinesque, 1831 -- valid -- purple lilliput
  Toxolasma mearnsi (Simpson, 1900) -- valid -- western lilliput
  Toxolasma parvum (Barnes, 1823) -- valid -- lilliput
  Toxolasma paulum (Lea, 1840) -- valid -- iridescent lilliput
  Toxolasma pullus (Conrad, 1838) -- valid -- Savannah lilliput
  Toxolasma texasiensis (Lea, 1857) -- invalid -- Texas lilliput
  Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820) -- valid -- pistolgrip
  Truncilla cognata (Lea, 1860) -- valid -- Mexican fawnsfoot
  Truncilla donaciformis (Lea, 1828) -- valid -- fawnsfoot
  Truncilla macrodon (Lea, 1859) -- valid -- Texas fawnsfoot
  Truncilla truncata Rafinesque, 1820 -- valid -- deertoe
  Uniomerus caroliniana (Bosc, 1801) -- invalid -- Florida pondhorn
  Uniomerus declivis (Say, 1831) -- valid -- tapered pondhorn
  Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831) -- valid -- pondhorn
  Utterbackia couperiana (Lea, 1840) -- valid -- barrel floater
  Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829) -- valid -- paper pondshell
  Utterbackia peggyae (R.I. Johnson, 1965) -- valid -- Florida floater
  Utterbackia suborbiculata (Say, 1831) -- valid -- flat floater
  Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (Conrad, 1836) -- valid -- ellipse
  Venustaconcha pleasii (Marsh, 1891) -- valid -- bleedingtooth mussel
  Villosa amygdala (Lea, 1843) -- valid -- Florida rainbow
  Villosa constricta (Conrad, 1838) -- valid -- notched rainbow
  Villosa delumbis (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- eastern creekshell
  Villosa fabalis (Lea, 1831) -- valid -- rayed bean
  Villosa iris (Lea, 1829) -- valid -- rainbow
  Villosa lienosa (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- little spectacle case, little spectaclecase
  Villosa nebulosa (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- Alabama rainbow
  Villosa ortmanni (Walker, 1925) -- valid -- Kentucky creekshell
  Villosa perpurpurea (Lea, 1861) -- valid -- purple bean
  Villosa taeniata (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- painted creekshell
  Villosa trabalis (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- Cumberland bean
  Villosa umbrans (Lea, 1857) -- valid -- Coosa creekshell
  Villosa vanuxemensis (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- mountain creekshell
  Villosa vaughaniana (Lea, 1838) -- valid -- Carolina creekshell
  Villosa vibex (Conrad, 1834) -- valid -- southern rainbow
  Villosa villosa (B.H. Wright, 1898) -- valid -- downy rainbow
   

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