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Epinephelus  Bloch, 1793
Taxonomic Serial No.: 167694

 Taxonomy and Nomenclature
       
  Kingdom: Animalia  
  Taxonomic Rank: Genus  
  Synonym(s): Promicrops Poey, 1868
 
  Common Name(s): groupers [English]
 
       
  Taxonomic Status:    
  Current Standing: valid  
       
  Data Quality Indicators:    
  Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met  
  Global Species Completeness: complete   
  Latest Record Review: 2004   
       

 Taxonomic Hierarchy
       
 KingdomAnimalia  – Animal, animaux, animals  
    SubkingdomBilateria   
       InfrakingdomDeuterostomia   
          PhylumChordata  – cordés, cordado, chordates  
             SubphylumVertebrata  – vertebrado, vertébrés, vertebrates  
                InfraphylumGnathostomata   
                   SuperclassActinopterygii  – ray-finned fishes, spiny rayed fishes, poisson épineux, poissons à nageoires rayonnées  
                      ClassTeleostei   
                         SuperorderAcanthopterygii   
                            OrderPerciformes  – perch-like fishes  
                               SuborderPercoidei   
                                  FamilySerranidae  – groupers, sea basses, bars, mérous, serranidés, cabrillas y meros, sea basses and groupers, serrans  
                                     SubfamilyEpinephelinae   
                                        TribeEpinephelini   
                                           GenusEpinephelus Bloch, 1793 – groupers  
    Direct Children:  
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus acanthistius (Gilbert, 1892) – Gulf coney, baqueta, rooster hind 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck, 1765) – rock hind, cabra mora, cabrilla payaso 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus aeneus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817) – white grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus akaara (Temminck and Schlegel, 1842) – redspotted grouper, Hong Kong grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus albomarginatus Boulenger, 1903 – white-edged grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker, 1857) – banded grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus analogus Gill, 1863 – spotted cabrilla, cabrilla pinta 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus andersoni Boulenger, 1903 – catface grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775) – yellowspotted rockcod, areolate grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus awoara (Temminck and Schlegel, 1842) – yellow grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus bilobatus Randall and Allen, 1987 – twinspot grouper, frostback rockcod 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant in Vaillant and Bocourt, 1878) – duskytail grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus bontoides (Bleeker, 1855) – palemargin grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus bruneus Bloch, 1793 – longtooth grouper, mudgrouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus caninus (Valenciennes, 1843) – dogtooth grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau, 1861) – moustache grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus chlorocephalus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830) – Tonga grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828)  
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus cifuentesi Lavenberg and Grove in Heemstra and Randall, 1993 – cabrilla gallina, olive grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus clippertonensis Allen and Robertson, 1999  
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch, 1790)  
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) – orange-spotted grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828) – coral rockcod 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus costae (Steindachner, 1878) – goldblotch grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson, 1846) – speckled blue grouper, purple rockcod, blue Maori 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus daemelii (Günther, 1876) – saddletail grouper, back rockcod, saddled rockcod, spotted black grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus darwinensis Randall and Heemstra, 1991 – Darwin grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828) – spinycheek grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus drummondhayi Goode and Bean, 1878 – speckled hind, mero pintarroja 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus epistictus (Temminck and Schlegel, 1842) – dotted grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus ergastularius Whitley, 1930 – sevenbar grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828) – cloudy grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus exsul (Fowler, 1944) – cabrilla diez espinas, tenspine grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus fasciatomaculosus (Peters, 1865) – rock grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775) – bluetipped rockcod, blacktipped grouper, footballer cod 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828) – barred-chest grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède, 1802) – blue-and-yellow grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus flavolimbatus Poey, 1865 – yellowedge grouper, mero de aletas amarillas, mero extraviado 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775) – black rockcod, brown-marbled grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus gabriellae Randall and Heemstra, 1991 – multispotted grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus goreensis (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830) – Dungat grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus, 1758) – red hind, cabrilla, cabrilla colorada 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus haifensis Ben-tuvia, 1953 – Haifa grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus heniochus Fowler, 1904 – bridled grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus hexagonatus (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801) – starspotted grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus howlandi (Günther, 1873) – blacksaddle grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus indistinctus Randall and Heemstra, 1991 – Somali grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus irroratus (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801) – Marquesan grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) – jewfish, guasa, goliath grouper, mero guasa 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus labriformis (Jenyns, 1840) – lateralband grouper, cabrilla piedrera, flag cabrilla, starry grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790)  
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck and Schlegel, 1842) – striped grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus lebretonianus (Hombron and Jacquinot in Jacquinot and Guichenot, 1853) – mystery grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus longispinis (Kner, 1864) – streakyspot grouper, longspine grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker, 1855) – snubnose grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus maculatus (Bloch, 1790) – highfin grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir and Guézé, 1963 – speckled grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) – Malabar grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) – dusky grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus melanostigma Schultz in Schultz et al., 1953 – one-blotch grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus merra Bloch, 1793 – honeycomb rockcod, honeycomb grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830) – netfin grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus morio (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828) – red grouper, cherna americana 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1833) – comet grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus multinotatus (Peters, 1876) – white-blotched grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus mystacinus (Poey, 1852) – misty grouper, cherno de lo alto, moustache grouper, convict grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus nigritus (Holbrook, 1855) – cherno prieto, mero negro, warsaw grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus niphobles Gilbert and Starks in Gilbert, 1897 – baqueta ploma, star-studded grouper, star-studed grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828) – snowy grouper, cherna manchada, cherna pintada 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus octofasciatus Griffin, 1926 – eightbar grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus ongus (Bloch, 1790) – white-streaked grouper, specklefin rockcod 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus perplexus Randall, Hoese and Last in Randall and Heemstra, 1991 – puzzling grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus peruanus Chirichigno F., 1963  
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus poecilonotus (Temminck and Schlegel, 1842) – dot-dash grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus polylepis Randall and Heemstra, 1991 – smallscaled grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker, 1849) – comouflage grouper, small toothed rockcod 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus polystigma (Bleeker, 1853) – white-doted grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus posteli Fourmanoir and Crosnier, 1964 – striped-fin grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus quernus Seale, 1901  
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830) – longfin grouper, long-finned rock-cod 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus radiatus (Day, 1868) – oblique-banded grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus retouti Bleeker, 1868 – red-tipped grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830) – halfmoon grouper, Chinaman rockcod, white-dotted grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus septemfasciatus (Thunberg, 1793) – convict grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus sexfasciatus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828) – sixbar grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus socialis (Günther, 1873) – surge grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus spilotoceps Schultz in Schultz et al., 1953 – foursaddle grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus stictus Randall and Allen, 1987 – black-dotted grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus stoliczkae (Day, 1875) – epaulet grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus striatus (Bloch, 1792) – cherna criolla, mero del Caribe, Nassau grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus suborbitalis Amaoka and Randall, 1990 – seamount grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus summana (Forsskål, 1775) – Summan grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus tauvina (Forsskål, 1775) – greasy grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus timorensis Randall and Allen, 1987 – yellowspotted gouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828) – threespot gouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus trophis Randall and Allen, 1987 – plump grouper 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus tuamotuensis Fourmanoir, 1971 – reticulate gouper, snakeskin seabass 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus tukula Morgans, 1959 – potato grouper, potato cod 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters, 1866) – Maori gouper, red-speckled rock-cod 
                                              SpeciesEpinephelus undulosus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) – wavy-lined grouper 
       

 References
       
  Expert(s):    
  Expert:    
  Notes:    
  Reference for:    
       
  Other Source(s):    
  Source: Catalog of Fishes, 13-May-2004, website (version 10-May-04)  
  Acquired: 2004   
  Notes: http://www.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/   
  Reference for: Epinephelus   
       
  Source: NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0)  
  Acquired: 1996   
  Notes:    
  Reference for: Epinephelus   
       
  Publication(s):    
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Eschmeyer, William N., ed.   
  Publication Date: 1998   
  Article/Chapter Title: Catalog of Fishes   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, no. 1, vol 1-3   
  Page(s): 2905   
  Publisher: California Academy of Sciences   
  Publication Place: San Francisco, California, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 0-940228-47-5   
  Notes: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25622932   
  Reference for: Epinephelus   
       
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Heemstra, Phillip C., and John E. Randall   
  Publication Date: 1993   
  Article/Chapter Title: Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae): An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of the Grouper, Rockcod, Hind, Coral Grouper and Lyretail Species Known to Date   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: FAO Fisheries Synopsis, no. 125, vol. 16   
  Page(s): vii + 382   
  Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations   
  Publication Place: Rome, Italy   
  ISBN/ISSN: 92-5-103125-8, 0014-5602  
  Notes:    
  Reference for: Epinephelus   
       
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Nelson, Joseph S.   
  Publication Date: 1994   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Fishes of the World, Third Edition   
  Page(s): xvii + 600   
  Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   
  Publication Place: New York, New York, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 0-471-54713-1   
  Notes:    
  Reference for: Epinephelus   
       
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Shiino, Sueo M.   
  Publication Date: 1976   
  Article/Chapter Title: List of Common Names of Fishes of the World, Those Prevailing among English-speaking Nations   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Science Report of Shima Marineland, no. 4   
  Page(s): 262   
  Publisher: Shima Marineland   
  Publication Place: Kashikojima, Shima, Mie, Japan   
  ISBN/ISSN: 0385-1109   
  Notes:    
  Reference for: Epinephelus   
       

 Geographic Information
       
  Geographic Division:    
       
  Jurisdiction/Origin:    
 

 

   

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