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Canis lupus  Linnaeus, 1758
Taxonomic Serial No.: 180596

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 Taxonomy and Nomenclature
  Kingdom: Animalia  
  Taxonomic Rank: Species  
  Common Name(s): Wolf [English]
    Gray Wolf [English]
    Lobo gris [Spanish]
    loup [French]
  Taxonomic Status:    
  Current Standing: valid  
  Data Quality Indicators:    
  Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met  

 Taxonomic Hierarchy
 KingdomAnimalia  – Animal, animaux, animals  
    SubkingdomBilateria  – triploblasts  
          PhylumChordata  – cordés, cordado, chordates  
             SubphylumVertebrata  – vertebrado, vertébrés, vertebrates  
                      ClassMammalia Linnaeus, 1758 – mammifères, mamífero, mammals  
                         SubclassTheria Parker and Haswell, 1897  
                            InfraclassEutheria Gill, 1872  
                               OrderCarnivora Bowdich, 1821 – cachorro do mato, carnívoro, gato do mato, lontra, carnivores, carnivores  
                                  SuborderCaniformia Kretzoi, 1938 – dog-like carnivores  
                                     FamilyCanidae Fischer, 1817 – coyotes, dogs, foxes, jackals, wolves  
                                        GenusCanis Linnaeus, 1758 – dogs, foxes, jackals  
                                           SpeciesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 – Wolf, Gray Wolf, Lobo gris, loup  
    Direct Children:  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus albus Kerr, 1792  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus alces Goldman, 1941  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus arabs Pocock, 1934  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus arctos Pocock, 1935  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus baileyi Nelson and Goldman, 1929  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus beothucus G. M. Allen and Barbour, 1937  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus bernardi Anderson, 1943  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus campestris Dwigubski, 1804  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus chanco Gray, 1863  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus columbianus Goldman, 1941  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus crassodon Hall, 1932  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus dingo Meyer, 1793 – dingo 
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 – domestic dog 
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus filchneri (Matschie, 1907)  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus floridanus Miller, 1912  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus fuscus Richardson, 1839  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus gregoryi Goldman, 1937  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus griseoalbus Baird, 1858  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus hattai Kishida, 1931  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus hodophilax Temminck, 1839  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus hudsonicus Goldman, 1941  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus irremotus Goldman, 1937  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus labradorius Goldman, 1937  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus ligoni Goldman, 1937  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus mackenzii Anderson, 1943  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus manningi Anderson, 1943  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus mogollonensis Goldman, 1937  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus monstrabilis Goldman, 1937  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus occidentalis Richardson, 1829  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus orion Pocock, 1935  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus pallipes Sykes, 1831  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus pambasileus Elliot, 1905  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus tundrarum Miller, 1912  
                                              Subspecies Canis lupus youngi Goldman, 1937  

  Expert: Alfred L. Gardner  
  Notes: Curator of North American mammals and Chief of Mammal Section, National Biological Service, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA   
  Reference for: Canis lupus    
  Expert: W. Christopher Wozencraft  
  Notes: Division of Natural Sciences, Bethel College, 1001 W. McKinley Ave., Mishawaka, IN 46545   
  Reference for: Canis lupus    
  Other Source(s):    
  Source: CDP, database (version 1999)  
  Acquired: 2003   
  Reference for: Gray Wolf[English], loup [French]   
  Source: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, database (version undefined)  
  Acquired: 2001   
  Notes: CONABIO: (   
  Reference for: Lobo gris[Spanish]   
  Source: NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0)  
  Acquired: 1996   
  Reference for: Canis lupus   
  Source: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program-03/01, website (version undefined)  
  Acquired: 2001   
  Reference for: Canis lupus   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner  
  Publication Date: 1987   
  Article/Chapter Title: Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Resource Publication, no. 166   
  Page(s): 79   
  Publisher: United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service   
  Publication Place: Washington, D.C., USA   
  Reference for: Canis lupus   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds.  
  Publication Date: 1993   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing   
  Page(s): xviii + 1207   
  Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Press   
  Publication Place: Washington, DC, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 1-56098-217-9   
  Notes: Corrections were made to text at 3rd printing   
  Reference for: Canis lupus   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds.  
  Publication Date: 2005   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2   
  Page(s): 2142   
  Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press   
  Publication Place: Baltimore, Maryland, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 0-8018-8221-4   
  Reference for: Canis lupus, Wolf [English]   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole  
  Publication Date: 2000   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Common Names of Mammals of the World   
  Page(s): xiv + 204   
  Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Press   
  Publication Place: Washington, DC, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 1-56098-383-3   
  Notes: With contributions by Bernadette N. Graham, Adam P. Potter, and Mariana M. Upmeyer   
  Reference for: Canis lupus, Gray Wolf [English]   

 Geographic Information
  Geographic Division: Australia  
    Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China)  
    Middle America  
    Southern Asia  
    North America  
  Jurisdiction/Origin: Continental US, Native  
    Canada, Native  
    Alaska, Native  



  Comment: Status: CITES - Appendix I (Indian, Pakistan, Bhutan, and Nepal populations); otherwise Appendix II. U.S. ESA - as C. lupus varies by population: 1) Endangered in Southwestern Distinct Population Segment - Mexico and USA (AZ, NM, CO south of Interstate Highwa...  
    Comments: Reviewed by Mech, 1974. Opinion 2027 of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (March, 2003a) ruled that lupus is not invalid by virtue of being pre-dated by a name based on a domestic form. Includes the domestic dog as a subspecies, with the dingo provisionally separate--artificial variants created by domestication and selective breeding (Vilá et al., 1999; Wayne and Ostrander, 1999; Savolainen et al., 2002). Although this may stretch the subspecies concept, it retains the...  



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Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. While every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and up-to-date information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in provisions of treaties to which the United States is a party, wildlife statutes, regulations, and any applicable notices that have been published in the Federal Register. For further information on U.S. legal requirements with respect to protected taxa, please contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

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