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Bos taurus  Linnaeus, 1758
Taxonomic Serial No.: 183838

(Download Help) Bos taurus TSN 183838

 Taxonomy and Nomenclature
       
  Kingdom: Animalia  
  Taxonomic Rank: Species  
  Synonym(s):    
  Common Name(s): aurochs [English]
 
    domesticated cattle [English]
 
    domestic cattle (feral) [English]
 
    Aurochs [English]
 
       
  Taxonomic Status:    
  Current Standing: valid  
       
  Data Quality Indicators:    
  Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met  
       

 Taxonomic Hierarchy
       
 KingdomAnimalia  – Animal, animaux, animals  
    SubkingdomBilateria   
       InfrakingdomDeuterostomia   
          PhylumChordata  – cordés, cordado, chordates  
             SubphylumVertebrata  – vertebrado, vertébrés, vertebrates  
                InfraphylumGnathostomata   
                   SuperclassTetrapoda   
                      ClassMammalia Linnaeus, 1758 – mammifères, mamífero, mammals  
                         SubclassTheria Parker and Haswell, 1897  
                            InfraclassEutheria Gill, 1872  
                               OrderArtiodactyla Owen, 1848 – artiodactyls, porco do mato, veado, cloven-hoofed ungulates, even-toed ungulates  
                                  FamilyBovidae Gray, 1821 – antelopes, cattle, goats, sheep, bovids  
                                     SubfamilyBovinae Gray, 1821  
                                        GenusBos Linnaeus, 1758 – true cattle, oxen  
                                           SpeciesBos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 – aurochs, domesticated cattle, domestic cattle (feral), Aurochs  
    Direct Children:  
                                              Subspecies Bos taurus indicus Linnaeus, 1758 – zebu, Indian humped cattle, Brahma cattle, zebu cattle 
                                              Subspecies Bos taurus primigenius Bojanus, 1827 – aurochs, wild ox, urus 
                                              Subspecies Bos taurus taurus Linnaeus, 1758  
       

 References
       
  Expert(s):    
  Expert: Alfred L. Gardner  
  Notes: Curator of North American mammals and Chief of Mammal Section, National Biological Service, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA   
  Reference for: Bos taurus    
       
  Expert: Peter Grubb  
  Notes: 35 Downhills Park Road, London N17 6PE, England   
  Reference for: Bos taurus    
       
  Other Source(s):    
  Source: NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0)  
  Acquired: 1996   
  Notes:    
  Reference for: Bos taurus   
       
  Publication(s):    
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds.  
  Publication Date: 1993   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing   
  Page(s): xviii + 1207   
  Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Press   
  Publication Place: Washington, DC, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 1-56098-217-9   
  Notes: Corrections were made to text at 3rd printing   
  Reference for: Bos taurus   
       
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds.  
  Publication Date: 2005   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2   
  Page(s): 2142   
  Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press   
  Publication Place: Baltimore, Maryland, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 0-8018-8221-4   
  Notes:    
  Reference for: Bos taurus   
       
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole  
  Publication Date: 2000   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Common Names of Mammals of the World   
  Page(s): xiv + 204   
  Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Press   
  Publication Place: Washington, DC, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 1-56098-383-3   
  Notes: With contributions by Bernadette N. Graham, Adam P. Potter, and Mariana M. Upmeyer   
  Reference for: Bos taurus, aurochs [English]   
       

 Geographic Information
       
  Geographic Division: Africa  
    South America  
    Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China)  
    Middle America  
    North America  
    Southern Asia  
    Caribbean  
    Australia  
    Oceania  
       
  Jurisdiction/Origin: Hawaii, Introduced  
    Central Pacific Territories, Introduced  
 

 

   

 Comments
       
  Comment: Status: IUCN - Endangered as Pseudonovibos spiralis (but see comments)  
    ITIS defers to Wilson & Reeder (eds., 2005) on the correct name for a species when the choice is between an older name based on a domestic form and a younger name based on a wild form. ICZN Opinion 2027 (3/2003) sought to resolve this, but by itself the Ruling contained in that Opinion effectively says that it cannot be based on priority. More explicit guidance is found in the "History of Case 3010" section of the Opinion, but ITIS has been advised that only the Ruling section is binding. Thus, there is apparently no basis upon which to select the correct (valid) name  
    Comments: Includes primigenius (extinct wild ancestor surviving into 17th Century) and indicus; but see Corbet (1978c:206). Studies of mtDNA suggest two independent domestications of cattle (Loftus et al. 1994), taurus and indicus, originating presumably from Eurasiatic and Indian populations. Formal synonymy disputed. Gentry et al. (1996) proposed that majority usage be confirmed by adoption of Bos primigenius as the name for the wild taxon of Aurochsen. They asked the International Commission on Z  
 

 

   

 other off-site resources
       
 

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