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Bombus  Latreille, 1802
Taxonomic Serial No.: 154397

(Download Help) Bombus TSN 154397

 Taxonomy and Nomenclature
  Kingdom: Animalia  
  Taxonomic Rank: Genus  
  Synonym(s): Psithyrus Lepeletier, 1833
  Common Name(s): Bumblebees [English]
    Bumble Bees [English]
  Taxonomic Status:    
  Current Standing: valid  
  Data Quality Indicators:    
  Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met  
  Global Species Completeness: complete   
  Latest Record Review: 2021   

 Taxonomic Hierarchy
 KingdomAnimalia  – Animal, animaux, animals  
    SubkingdomBilateria  – triploblasts  
             PhylumArthropoda  – Artrópode, arthropodes, arthropods  
                SubphylumHexapoda  – hexapods  
                   ClassInsecta  – insects, hexapoda, inseto, insectes  
                      SubclassPterygota  – insects ailés, winged insects  
                         InfraclassNeoptera  – modern, wing-folding insects  
                               OrderHymenoptera  – abelha, formiga, vespa, ants, bees, wasps  
                                  SuborderApocrita  – abeilles, fourmis, guępes véritables, narrow-waisted hymenopterans, ants, bees, true wasps  
                                        SuperfamilyApoidea  – bees, sphecoid wasps, apoid wasps  
                                           FamilyApidae  – euglossine, euglossines, honey bees, stingless bees  
                                                    GenusBombus Latreille, 1802 – Bumblebees, Bumble Bees  
    Direct Children:  
                                                       Species Bombus abnormis (Tkalcu, 1968)  
                                                       Species Bombus affinis Cresson, 1863 – Rusty-patched bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus alagesianus Reinig, 1930  
                                                       Species Bombus alpinus (Linnaeus, 1758)  
                                                       Species Bombus amurensis Radoszkowski, 1862  
                                                       Species Bombus anachoreta (Skorikov, 1914)  
                                                       Species Bombus angustus Chiu, 1949  
                                                       Species Bombus appositus Cresson, 1879 – White-shouldered Bumble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus ardens Smith, 1879  
                                                       Species Bombus argillaceus (Scopoli, 1763)  
                                                       Species Bombus armeniacus Radoszkowski, 1877  
                                                       Species Bombus ashtoni (Cresson, 1864) – Ashton's cuckoo bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus asiaticus Morawitz, 1875  
                                                       Species Bombus atripes Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus auricomus (Robertson, 1903) – Black and gold bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus avanus (Skorikov, 1938)  
                                                       Species Bombus avinoviellus (Skorikov, 1914)  
                                                       Species Bombus baeri Vachal, 1904  
                                                       Species Bombus bahiensis Santos Júnior and Silveira, 2015  
                                                       Species Bombus balteatus Dahlbom, 1832 – High Country Bumble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus barbutellus (Kirby, 1802) – Barbut's Cuckoo-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus beaticola (Tkalcu, 1968)  
                                                       Species Bombus bellardii (Gribodo, 1892)  
                                                       Species Bombus bellicosus Smith, 1879  
                                                       Species Bombus bicoloratus Smith, 1879  
                                                       Species Bombus bifarius Cresson, 1879 – Two form Bumble Bee, Black-notched Bumble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus bimaculatus Cresson, 1863 – Two-spotted Bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus biroi Vogt, 1911  
                                                       Species Bombus bohemicus Seidl, 1838  
                                                       Species Bombus borealis Kirby, 1837 – Northern amber bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus braccatus Friese, 1905  
                                                       Species Bombus brachycephalus Handlirsch, 1888  
                                                       Species Bombus branickii (Radoszkowski, 1893)  
                                                       Species Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier, 1836  
                                                       Species Bombus breviceps Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus brevivillus Franklin, 1913  
                                                       Species Bombus brodmannicus Vogt, 1909  
                                                       Species Bombus butteli Friese, 1903  
                                                       Species Bombus californicus Smith, 1854 – California bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus caliginosus (Frison, 1927) – Obscure bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus campestris (Panzer, 1801) – Field Cuckoo-Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus centralis Cresson, 1864 – Central bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus chinensis (Morawitz, 1890)  
                                                       Species Bombus cingulatus Wahlberg, 1855  
                                                       Species Bombus citrinus (Smith, 1854) – Lemon cuckoo bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus coccineus Friese, 1903  
                                                       Species Bombus cockerelli Franklin, 1913  
                                                       Species Bombus confusus Schenck, 1861  
                                                       Species Bombus consobrinus Dahlbom, 1832  
                                                       Species Bombus convexus Wang, 1979  
                                                       Species Bombus coreanus (Yasumatsu, 1934)  
                                                       Species Bombus cornutus (Frison, 1933)  
                                                       Species Bombus crotchii Cresson, 1879 – Crotch bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus cryptarum (Fabricius, 1775)  
                                                       Species Bombus cullumanus (Kirby, 1802) – Cullum's Humble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus czerskianus Vogt, 1911  
                                                       Species Bombus czerskii Skorikov, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus dahlbomii Guérin-Méneville, 1835  
                                                       Species Bombus defector Skorikov, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus deuteronymus Schulz, 1906  
                                                       Species Bombus difficillimus Skorikov, 1912  
                                                       Species Bombus digressus (Milliron, 1962)  
                                                       Species Bombus diligens Smith, 1861  
                                                       Species Bombus distinguendus Morawitz, 1869 – Great Yellow Humble-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus diversus Smith, 1869  
                                                       Species Bombus ecuadorius Meunier, 1890  
                                                       Species Bombus elegans Seidl, 1838  
                                                       Species Bombus ephippiatus Say, 1837  
                                                       Species Bombus eriophorus Klug, 1807  
                                                       Species Bombus eurythorax Wang, 1982  
                                                       Species Bombus excellens Smith, 1879  
                                                       Species Bombus exil (Skorikov, 1922)  
                                                       Species Bombus eximius Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus expolitus (Tkalcu, 1989)  
                                                       Species Bombus fedtschenkoi Morawitz, 1875  
                                                       Species Bombus ferganicus (Radoszkowski, 1893)  
                                                       Species Bombus fernaldae (Franklin, 1911) – Fernald cuckoo bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus fervidus (Fabricius, 1798) – Yellow bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus festivus Smith, 1861  
                                                       Species Bombus filchnerae Vogt, 1908  
                                                       Species Bombus flavescens Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus flavidus Eversmann, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus flavifrons Cresson, 1863 – Yellow head bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus formosellus (Frison, 1934)  
                                                       Species Bombus fragrans (Pallas, 1771)  
                                                       Species Bombus franklini (Frison, 1921) – Franklin bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus fraternus (Smith, 1854) – Southern plains bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus frigidus Smith, 1854  
                                                       Species Bombus friseanus Skorikov, 1933  
                                                       Species Bombus funebris Smith, 1854  
                                                       Species Bombus funerarius Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus ganjsuensis Skorikov, 1913  
                                                       Species Bombus genalis Friese, 1918  
                                                       Species Bombus gerstaeckeri Morawitz, 1881  
                                                       Species Bombus glacialis Friese, 1902  
                                                       Species Bombus grahami (Frison, 1933)  
                                                       Species Bombus griseocollis (De Geer, 1773) – Brown-belted bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus haematurus Kriechbaumer, 1870  
                                                       Species Bombus haemorrhoidalis Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus handlirschi Friese, 1903  
                                                       Species Bombus handlirschianus Vogt, 1909  
                                                       Species Bombus haueri Handlirsch, 1888  
                                                       Species Bombus hedini Bischoff, 1936  
                                                       Species Bombus himalayanus (Skorikov, 1914)  
                                                       Species Bombus honshuensis (Tkalcu, 1968)  
                                                       Species Bombus hortorum (Linnaeus, 1761) – Garden Bumblebee, Small Garden Humble-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus hortulanus Friese, 1904  
                                                       Species Bombus humilis Illiger, 1806 – Brown-banded Carder-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus huntii Greene, 1860 – Hunt bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus hyperboreus Schönherr, 1809  
                                                       Species Bombus hypnorum (Linnaeus, 1758) – New Garden Bumblebee 
                                                       Species Bombus hypocrita Pérez, 1905  
                                                       Species Bombus ignitus Smith, 1869  
                                                       Species Bombus imitator Pittioni, 1949  
                                                       Species Bombus impatiens Cresson, 1863 – Common eastern bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus impetuosus Smith, 1871  
                                                       Species Bombus incertoides Vogt, 1911  
                                                       Species Bombus incertus Morawitz, 1881  
                                                       Species Bombus inexspectatus (Tkalcu, 1963)  
                                                       Species Bombus infirmus (Tkalcu, 1968)  
                                                       Species Bombus infrequens (Tkalcu, 1989)  
                                                       Species Bombus insularis (Smith, 1861) – Indiscriminate cuckoo bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus interacti Martinet, Brasero and Rasmont, 2019  
                                                       Species Bombus irisanensis Cockerell, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus jacobsoni Skorikov, 1912  
                                                       Species Bombus jonellus (Kirby, 1802) – Heath Humble-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus kashmirensis Friese, 1909  
                                                       Species Bombus keriensis Morawitz, 1887  
                                                       Species Bombus kirbiellus Curtis, 1835  
                                                       Species Bombus kluanensis Williams and Cannings, 2016  
                                                       Species Bombus koreanus (Skorikov, 1933)  
                                                       Species Bombus kotzschi Reinig, 1940  
                                                       Species Bombus ladakhensis Richards, 1928  
                                                       Species Bombus laesus Morawitz, 1875  
                                                       Species Bombus lagubrunus Le, 2010  
                                                       Species Bombus lantschouensis Vogt, 1908  
                                                       Species Bombus lapidarius (Linnaeus, 1758) – Stone Humble-bee, Red tailed Bumblebee, Large Red-tailed Humble-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus lapponicus (Fabricius, 1793)  
                                                       Species Bombus laticinctus Franklin, 1913  
                                                       Species Bombus lemniscatus Skorikov, 1912  
                                                       Species Bombus lepidus Skorikov, 1912  
                                                       Species Bombus longipennis Friese, 1918  
                                                       Species Bombus longipes Friese, 1905  
                                                       Species Bombus lucorum (Linnaeus, 1761) – White tailed Bumblebee, Small Earth Humble-bee, White-tailed Bumblebee 
                                                       Species Bombus luteipes Richards, 1934  
                                                       Species Bombus macgregori LaBougle and Ayala, 1985  
                                                       Species Bombus magnus Vogt, 1911  
                                                       Species Bombus maidli Pittioni, 1939  
                                                       Species Bombus makarjini Skorikov, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus margreiteri Skorikov, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus marussinus Skorikov, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus mckayi Ashmead, 1902  
                                                       Species Bombus medius Cresson, 1863  
                                                       Species Bombus megacephalus Friese, 1931  
                                                       Species Bombus melaleucus Handlirsch, 1888  
                                                       Species Bombus melanopoda Cockerell, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus melanopygus Nylander, 1848 – Black tail bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus melanurus Lepeletier, 1836  
                                                       Species Bombus mendax Gerstäcker, 1869  
                                                       Species Bombus mesomelas Gerstäcker, 1869  
                                                       Species Bombus mexicanus Cresson, 1879  
                                                       Species Bombus miniatus Bingham, 1897  
                                                       Species Bombus minshanensis Bischoff, 1936  
                                                       Species Bombus minshanicola Bischoff, 1936  
                                                       Species Bombus mirus (Tkalcu, 1968)  
                                                       Species Bombus mixtus Cresson, 1879 – Fuzzy-horned bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus mlokosievitzii Radoszkowski, 1877  
                                                       Species Bombus modestus Eversmann, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus mongolensis Williams, 2011  
                                                       Species Bombus monozonus (Friese, 1931)  
                                                       Species Bombus monticola Smith, 1849 – Mountain Humble-bee, Bilberry Humble-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus montivagus Smith, 1878  
                                                       Species Bombus morawitzi Radoszkowski, 1876  
                                                       Species Bombus morawitzianus (Popov, 1931)  
                                                       Species Bombus morio (Swederus, 1787)  
                                                       Species Bombus morrisoni Cresson, 1879 – Morrison Bumblebee 
                                                       Species Bombus mucidus Gerstäcker, 1869  
                                                       Species Bombus muscorum (Linnaeus, 1758) – Large Carder-bee, Moss Carder-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus natvigi Richards, 1931  
                                                       Species Bombus neoboreus Sladen, 1919  
                                                       Species Bombus nevadensis Cresson, 1874 – Nevada Bumble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus niveatus Kriechbaumer, 1870  
                                                       Species Bombus nobilis Friese, 1905  
                                                       Species Bombus norvegicus (Sparre-Schneider, 1918)  
                                                       Species Bombus novus (Frison, 1933)  
                                                       Species Bombus oberti Morawitz, 1883  
                                                       Species Bombus obtusus Richards, 1951  
                                                       Species Bombus occidentalis Greene, 1858 – Western Bumble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus oceanicus Friese, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus opifex Smith, 1879  
                                                       Species Bombus opulentus Smith, 1861  
                                                       Species Bombus parthenius Richards, 1934  
                                                       Species Bombus pascuorum (Scopoli, 1763) – Common Carder-Bee, Common Carder Bee, Common Carder Bumblebee 
                                                       Species Bombus patagiatus Nylander, 1848  
                                                       Species Bombus pauloensis Friese, 1912  
                                                       Species Bombus pensylvanicus (De Geer, 1773) – bumble bee, American bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus perezi (Schulthess, 1886)  
                                                       Species Bombus perplexus Cresson, 1863 – Confusing bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus persicus Radoszkowski, 1881  
                                                       Species Bombus personatus Smith, 1879  
                                                       Species Bombus picipes Richards, 1934  
                                                       Species Bombus polaris Curtis, 1835  
                                                       Species Bombus pomorum (Panzer, 1805) – Apple Humble-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus portchinsky Radoszkowski, 1883  
                                                       Species Bombus pratorum (Linnaeus, 1761) – Early-Nesting Humble-bee, Early Nesting Bumblebee, Early Humble-Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus pressus (Frison, 1935)  
                                                       Species Bombus prshewalskyi Morawitz, 1880  
                                                       Species Bombus pseudobaicalensis Vogt, 1911  
                                                       Species Bombus pullatus Franklin, 1913  
                                                       Species Bombus pyrenaeus Pérez, 1879  
                                                       Species Bombus pyrosoma Morawitz, 1889  
                                                       Species Bombus pyrrhopygus Friese, 1902  
                                                       Species Bombus qilianensis Williams, 2020  
                                                       Species Bombus quadricolor (Lepeletier, 1832)  
                                                       Species Bombus reinigi Tkalcu, 1974  
                                                       Species Bombus religiosus (Frison, 1935)  
                                                       Species Bombus remotus (Tkalcu, 1968)  
                                                       Species Bombus richardsiellus (Tkalcu, 1968)  
                                                       Species Bombus robustus Smith, 1854  
                                                       Species Bombus rohweri (Frison, 1925)  
                                                       Species Bombus rotundiceps Friese, 1916  
                                                       Species Bombus rubicundus Smith, 1854  
                                                       Species Bombus rubriventris Lepeletier, 1836  
                                                       Species Bombus ruderarius (Müller, 1776) – Red-shanked Carder-bee, Red-shanked Bumblebee 
                                                       Species Bombus ruderatus (Fabricius, 1775) – Large Garden Humble-bee, Ruderal Bumblebee 
                                                       Species Bombus rufipes Lepeletier, 1836  
                                                       Species Bombus rufocinctus Cresson, 1863 – Red-belted bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus rufofasciatus Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus rupestris (Fabricius, 1793) – Hill Cuckoo-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus saltuarius (Skorikov, 1931)  
                                                       Species Bombus sandersoni Franklin, 1913 – Sanderson Bumble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus schrencki Morawitz, 1881  
                                                       Species Bombus securus (Frison, 1935)  
                                                       Species Bombus semenovianus (Skorikov, 1914)  
                                                       Species Bombus semenoviellus Skorikov, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus senex Vollenhoven, 1873  
                                                       Species Bombus separandus Vogt, 1909  
                                                       Species Bombus sibiricus (Fabricius, 1781)  
                                                       Species Bombus sichelii Radoszkowski, 1860  
                                                       Species Bombus simillimus Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus sitkensis Nylander, 1848 – Sitka bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus skorikovi (Popov, 1927)  
                                                       Species Bombus sonani (Frison, 1934)  
                                                       Species Bombus sonorus Say, 1837 – Sonoran Bumble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus soroeensis (Fabricius, 1776) – Ilfracombe Humble-bee, Broken-belted Humble-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus sporadicus Nylander, 1848  
                                                       Species Bombus steindachneri Handlirsch, 1888  
                                                       Species Bombus subterraneus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Short-haired Humble-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus subtypicus (Skorikov, 1914)  
                                                       Species Bombus suckleyi Greene, 1860 – Suckley cuckoo bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus sulfureus Friese, 1905  
                                                       Species Bombus superbus (Tkalcu, 1968)  
                                                       Species Bombus supremus Morawitz, 1887  
                                                       Species Bombus sushkini (Skorikov, 1931)  
                                                       Species Bombus sycophanta Gribodo, 1892  
                                                       Species Bombus sylvarum (Linnaeus, 1761) – Knapweed Carder-bee, Shrill Carder Bee, Shrill Carder-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus sylvestris (Lepeletier, 1832) – Four-colored Cuckoo-Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus sylvicola Kirby, 1837 – Forest bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus tanguticus Morawitz, 1887  
                                                       Species Bombus ternarius Say, 1837 – Tri-colored bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) – Buff tailed bumblebee, Buff-tailed bumblebee, Buff-tailed Humble-bee, Large Earth Humble-bee 
                                                       Species Bombus terricola Kirby, 1837 – Yellow-banded Bumble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus tibetanus (Morawitz, 1887)  
                                                       Species Bombus tibeticus Williams, 2020  
                                                       Species Bombus tichenkoi (Skorikov, 1926)  
                                                       Species Bombus transversalis (Olivier, 1789)  
                                                       Species Bombus tricornis Radoszkowski, 1888  
                                                       Species Bombus trifasciatus Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus trinominatus Dalla Torre, 1890  
                                                       Species Bombus tucumanus Vachal, 1904  
                                                       Species Bombus tunicatus Smith, 1852  
                                                       Species Bombus turkestanicus Skorikov, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus turneri (Richards, 1929)  
                                                       Species Bombus unicus Morawitz, 1883  
                                                       Species Bombus ussurensis Radoszkowski, 1877  
                                                       Species Bombus vagans Smith, 1854 – Half-black bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus validus Friese, 1905  
                                                       Species Bombus vancouverensis Cresson, 1879  
                                                       Species Bombus vandykei (Frison, 1927) – van Dyke bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus variabilis (Cresson, 1872) – Variable Cuckoo Bumble Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus velox (Skorikov, 1914)  
                                                       Species Bombus vestalis (Geoffroy, 1785) – Vestal Cuckoo-bee, Vestal Cuckoo Bee 
                                                       Species Bombus veteranus (Fabricius, 1793)  
                                                       Species Bombus vogti Friese, 1903  
                                                       Species Bombus volucelloides Gribodo, 1892  
                                                       Species Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski, 1862 – Vosnesensky bumble bee 
                                                       Species Bombus waltoni Cockerell, 1910  
                                                       Species Bombus wangae Williams, Tang, Yao and Cameron, 2009  
                                                       Species Bombus weisi Friese, 1903  
                                                       Species Bombus wilmattae Cockerell, 1912  
                                                       Species Bombus wurflenii Radoszkowski, 1860  
                                                       Species Bombus zonatus Smith, 1854  

  Expert: John S. Ascher, PhD  
  Notes: Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore   
  Reference for: Bombus    
  Other Source(s):    
  Source: Bombus - bumblebees of the world, website (version 16-Nov-06)  
  Acquired: 2006   
  Notes: Maintained by Paul Williams, and available at   
  Reference for: Bombus, Bumblebees [English]   
  Source: Catalogue of Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in the Neotropical..., website (version 03July2012)  
  Acquired: 2020   
  Notes: Moure, J. S., Urban, D., and G. A. R. Melo (Orgs). Catalogue of Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in the Neotropical Region. Available online at   
  Reference for: Bombus   
  Source: Discover Life bee species guide and world checklist - Draft-54, website (version Draft-54)  
  Acquired: 2020   
  Notes: Ascher, J. S. and J. Pickering. 01 February, 2020. Discover Life bee species guide and world checklist (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila).   
  Reference for: Bombus   
  Source: Hymenoptera Name Server version 1.5 19.xii.2007, website (version 1.5)  
  Acquired: 2018   
  Reference for: Bombus   
  Source: NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0)  
  Acquired: 1996   
  Reference for: Bombus   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Michener, Charles D.  
  Publication Date: 2000   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: The Bees of the World   
  Page(s): xiv + 913   
  Publisher: The Johns Hopkins University Press   
  Publication Place: Baltimore, Maryland, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 0-8018-6133-0   
  Reference for: Bombus   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Williams, P. H.  
  Publication Date: 1998   
  Article/Chapter Title: An annotated checklist of bumble bees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini)   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Entomology), vol. 67, no. 1   
  Page(s): 79-152   
  Publication Place:    
  ISBN/ISSN: 0968-0454   
  Notes: updated at   
  Reference for: Bombus   

 Geographic Information
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Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. While every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and up-to-date information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in provisions of treaties to which the United States is a party, wildlife statutes, regulations, and any applicable notices that have been published in the Federal Register. For further information on U.S. legal requirements with respect to protected taxa, please contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

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