the itis logo The report logo for the ITIS data page
Go to Print Version

Pipilo maculatus  Swainson, 1827
Taxonomic Serial No.: 554380

(Download Help) Pipilo maculatus TSN 554380

 Taxonomy and Nomenclature
  Kingdom: Animalia  
  Taxonomic Rank: Species  
  Common Name(s): Spotted Towhee [English]
  Taxonomic Status:    
  Current Standing: valid  
  Data Quality Indicators:    
  Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met  

 Taxonomic Hierarchy
 KingdomAnimalia  – Animal, animaux, animals  
          PhylumChordata  – cordés, cordado, chordates  
             SubphylumVertebrata  – vertebrado, vertébrés, vertebrates  
                      ClassAves  – Birds, oiseaux  
                         OrderPasseriformes  – Perching Birds, passereaux  
                            FamilyEmberizidae  – Emberizid Finches, American Sparrows, Towhees, Buntings, New World Sparrows  
                               GenusPipilo Vieillot, 1816 – Towhees  
                                  SpeciesPipilo maculatus Swainson, 1827 – Spotted Towhee  
    Direct Children:  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus arcticus (Swainson, 1832)  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus chiapensis van Rossem, 1938  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus clementae Grinnell, 1897  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus consobrinus Ridgway, 1876  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus curtatus Grinnell, 1911  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus falcifer McGregor, 1900  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus falcinellus Swarth, 1913  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus gaigei van Tyne & Sutton, 1937  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus griseipygius van Rossem, 1934  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus macronyx Swainson, 1827  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus maculatus Swainson, 1827  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus magnirostris Brewster, 1891  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus megalonyx S. F. Baird, 1858  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus montanus Swarth, 1905  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus oaxacae Sibley, 1950  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus oregonus Bell, 1849  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus orientalis Sibley, 1950  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus repetens Griscom, 1930  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus socorroensis Grayson, 1867  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus umbraticola Grinnell & Swarth, 1926  
                                     Subspecies Pipilo maculatus vulcanorum Sibley, 1950  

  Expert: Alan P. Peterson, M.D.  
  Notes: PO Box 1999 Walla Walla, Washington 99362-0999   
  Reference for: Pipilo maculatus    
  Expert: Richard C. Banks  
  Notes: Chief, Bird Section, U.S.G.S. - B.R.D. - P.W.R.C.   
  Reference for: Pipilo maculatus    
  Other Source(s):    
  Source: AOU Check-List (07-2007), website (version Jul-2007)  
  Acquired: 2007   
  Notes: American Ornithologists' Union's "List of the 2,046 Bird Species (With Scientific and English Names) Known From the A.O.U. Check-list Area" (AOU Check-list, 7th edition, updated with Supplements 42-48), maintained at   
  Reference for: Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee [English]   
  Source: Gill & Wright (2006) corrigenda/updates - 21-Sep-2007, website (version 1.1)  
  Acquired: 2007   
  Notes: Corrigenda & updates for "BIRDS OF THE WORLD Recommended English Names" available at   
  Reference for: Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee [English]   
  Source: IOC World Bird List (v 5.3), website (version 5.3)  
  Acquired: 2015   
  Notes: Gill, F., and D. Donsker, eds. 2015. IOC World Bird List (v 5.3). Available at [Accessed 04 September, 2015]   
  Reference for: Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee [English]   
  Source: Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2015.02.01, website (version 01-Feb-15)  
  Acquired: 2015   
  Notes: 'Zoonomen Nomenclatural data' maintained by Alan P. Peterson at   
  Reference for: Pipilo maculatus   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): American Ornithologists' Union  
  Publication Date: 1996   
  Article/Chapter Title: Fortieth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: The Auk, vol. 112, no. 3   
  Page(s): 819-830   
  Publication Place:    
  ISBN/ISSN: 0004-8038   
  Reference for: Pipilo maculatus   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Gibson, Daniel D., and Brina Kessel  
  Publication Date: 1992   
  Article/Chapter Title: Seventy-four new avian taxa documented in Alaska 1976-1991   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: The Condor, vol. 94, no. 2   
  Page(s): 454-467   
  Publication Place:    
  ISBN/ISSN: 0010-5422   
  Reference for: Pipilo maculatus   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright  
  Publication Date: 2006   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Birds of the World: Recommended English Names   
  Page(s): ix + 259   
  Publisher: Princeton University Press   
  Publication Place: Princeton, New Jersey, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 0-691-12827-8   
  Notes: Includes a CD-ROM with the full dataset   
  Reference for: Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee [English]   

 Geographic Information
  Geographic Division: North America  
    Middle America  
  Jurisdiction/Origin: Alaska, Incidental  
    Canada, Native  
    Continental US, Native  
    Mexico, Native  



  Comment: Formerly included in P. erythrophthalmus  



 Subordinate Taxa  Rank  Verified Standards Met  Verified Min Standards Met  Unverified Percent Standards Met

A gray graphic bar
Search on:  Any Name or TSN  Common Name  Scientific Name  TSN
In:  Kingdom    

Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. While every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and up-to-date information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in provisions of treaties to which the United States is a party, wildlife statutes, regulations, and any applicable notices that have been published in the Federal Register. For further information on U.S. legal requirements with respect to protected taxa, please contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

A gray bar