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Rhinella  Fitzinger, 1826
Taxonomic Serial No.: 773237

(Download Help) Rhinella TSN 773237

 Taxonomy and Nomenclature
       
  Kingdom: Animalia  
  Taxonomic Rank: Genus  
  Synonym(s): Rhamphophryne Trueb, 1971
 
    Atelophryniscus McCranie, Wilson and Williams, 1989
 
    Oxyrhynchus Spix, 1824
 
    Chaunus Wagler, 1828
 
    Otilophes Cuvier, 1829
 
    Otilophis Cuvier, 1829
 
    Phryniscus Wiegmann, 1834
 
    Osilophus Cuvier, 1829
 
    Otolophus Fitzinger, 1843
 
    Eurhina Fitzinger, 1843
 
    Chilophryne Fitzinger, 1843
 
    Docidophryne Fitzinger, 1843
 
    Trachycara Tschudi, 1845
 
    Otilophus Cuvier, 1829
 
    Aruncus Philippi, 1902
 
    Stenodactylus Philippi, 1902
 
    Otylophus Cuvier, 1829
 
  Common Name(s): South American Toads [English]
 
       
  Taxonomic Status:    
  Current Standing: valid  
       
  Data Quality Indicators:    
  Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met  
  Global Species Completeness: complete   
  Latest Record Review: 2019   
       

 Taxonomic Hierarchy
       
 KingdomAnimalia  – Animal, animaux, animals  
    SubkingdomBilateria   
       InfrakingdomDeuterostomia   
          PhylumChordata  – cordés, cordado, chordates  
             SubphylumVertebrata  – vertebrado, vertébrés, vertebrates  
                InfraphylumGnathostomata   
                   SuperclassTetrapoda   
                      ClassAmphibia  – amphibiens, anfíbio, Amphibians  
                         OrderAnura  – Frogs, perereca, ră, sapo, crapauds, grenouilles, Toads  
                            FamilyBufonidae Gray, 1825 – Bufonids, bufonidés, crapauds, Toads  
                               GenusRhinella Fitzinger, 1826 – South American Toads  
    Direct Children:  
                                  Species Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi and Haddad, 2004)  
                                  Species Rhinella achalensis (Cei, 1972)  
                                  Species Rhinella achavali (Maneyro, Arrieta and de Sá, 2004)  
                                  Species Rhinella acrolopha (Trueb, 1971)  
                                  Species Rhinella acutirostris (Spix, 1824)  
                                  Species Rhinella alata (Thominot, 1884)  
                                  Species Rhinella amabilis (Pramuk and Kadivar, 2003)  
                                  Species Rhinella amboroensis (Harvey and Smith, 1993)  
                                  Species Rhinella arborescandens (Duellman and Schulte, 1992)  
                                  Species Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867)  
                                  Species Rhinella arequipensis (Vellard, 1959)  
                                  Species Rhinella arunco (Molina, 1782)  
                                  Species Rhinella atacamensis (Cei, 1962)  
                                  Species Rhinella azarai (Gallardo, 1965)  
                                  Species Rhinella beebei (Gallardo, 1965)  
                                  Species Rhinella bergi (Céspedez, 2000)  
                                  Species Rhinella bernardoi Sanabria, Quiroga, Arias and Cortez, 2010  
                                  Species Rhinella casconi Roberto, Brito and Thomé, 2014  
                                  Species Rhinella castaneotica (Caldwell, 1991)  
                                  Species Rhinella centralis Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009  
                                  Species Rhinella ceratophrys (Boulenger, 1882)  
                                  Species Rhinella cerradensis Maciel, Brandăo, Campos and Sebben, 2007  
                                  Species Rhinella chavin (Lehr, Köhler, Aguilar and Ponce, 2001)  
                                  Species Rhinella chrysophora (McCranie, Wilson and Williams, 1989)  
                                  Species Rhinella cristinae (Vélez-Rodriguez and Ruiz-Carranza, 2002)  
                                  Species Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821)  
                                  Species Rhinella dapsilis (Myers and Carvalho, 1945)  
                                  Species Rhinella diptycha (Cope, 1862)  
                                  Species Rhinella dorbignyi (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)  
                                  Species Rhinella fernandezae (Gallardo, 1957)  
                                  Species Rhinella festae (Peracca, 1904)  
                                  Species Rhinella fissipes (Boulenger, 1903)  
                                  Species Rhinella gallardoi (Carrizo, 1992)  
                                  Species Rhinella gildae Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Bastos and Pombal, 2015  
                                  Species Rhinella gnustae (Gallardo, 1967)  
                                  Species Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824)  
                                  Species Rhinella henseli (Lutz, 1934)  
                                  Species Rhinella hoogmoedi Caramaschi and Pombal, 2006  
                                  Species Rhinella horribilis (Wiegmann, 1833) – Mesoamerican Cane Toad 
                                  Species Rhinella humboldti (Gallardo, 1965)  
                                  Species Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824)  
                                  Species Rhinella inca (Stejneger, 1913)  
                                  Species Rhinella inopina Vaz-Silva, Valdujo and Pombal, 2012  
                                  Species Rhinella iserni (Jiménez de la Espada, 1875)  
                                  Species Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002)  
                                  Species Rhinella justinianoi (Harvey and Smith, 1994)  
                                  Species Rhinella leptoscelis (Boulenger, 1912)  
                                  Species Rhinella lescurei Fouquet, Gaucher, Blanc and Vélez-Rodriguez, 2007  
                                  Species Rhinella lilyrodriguezae Cusi, Moravec, Lehr and Gvozdík, 2017  
                                  Species Rhinella limensis (Werner, 1901)  
                                  Species Rhinella lindae (Rivero and Castańo, 1990)  
                                  Species Rhinella macrorhina (Trueb, 1971)  
                                  Species Rhinella magnussoni Lima, Menin and Araújo, 2007  
                                  Species Rhinella major (Müller and Hellmich, 1936)  
                                  Species Rhinella manu Chaparro, Pramuk and Gluesenkamp, 2007  
                                  Species Rhinella margaritifera (Laurenti, 1768)  
                                  Species Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) – Cane Toad 
                                  Species Rhinella martyi Fouquet, Gaucher, Blanc and Vélez-Rodriguez, 2007  
                                  Species Rhinella merianae (Gallardo, 1965)  
                                  Species Rhinella mirandaribeiroi (Gallardo, 1965)  
                                  Species Rhinella multiverrucosa (Lehr, Pramuk and Lundberg, 2005)  
                                  Species Rhinella nattereri (Bokermann, 1967)  
                                  Species Rhinella nesiotes (Duellman and Toft, 1979)  
                                  Species Rhinella nicefori (Cochran and Goin, 1970)  
                                  Species Rhinella ocellata (Günther, 1858)  
                                  Species Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824)  
                                  Species Rhinella paraguas Grant and Bolívar-Garcías, 2014  
                                  Species Rhinella paraguayensis Ávila, Pansonato and Strüssmann, 2010  
                                  Species Rhinella poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845)  
                                  Species Rhinella proboscidea (Spix, 1824)  
                                  Species Rhinella pygmaea (Myers and Carvalho, 1952)  
                                  Species Rhinella quechua (Gallardo, 1961)  
                                  Species Rhinella roqueana (Melin, 1941)  
                                  Species Rhinella rostrata (Noble, 1920)  
                                  Species Rhinella rubescens (Lutz, 1925)  
                                  Species Rhinella rubropunctata (Guichenot, 1848)  
                                  Species Rhinella ruizi (Grant, 2000)  
                                  Species Rhinella rumbolli (Carrizo, 1992)  
                                  Species Rhinella scitula (Caramaschi and Niemeyer, 2003)  
                                  Species Rhinella sclerocephala (Mijares-Urrutia and Arends-R., 2001)  
                                  Species Rhinella sebbeni Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Bastos and Pombal, 2015  
                                  Species Rhinella spinulosa (Wiegmann, 1834)  
                                  Species Rhinella stanlaii (Lötters and Köhler, 2000)  
                                  Species Rhinella sternosignata (Günther, 1858)  
                                  Species Rhinella tacana (Padial, Reichle, McDiarmid and De la Riva, 2006)  
                                  Species Rhinella tenrec (Lynch and Renjifo, 1990)  
                                  Species Rhinella truebae (Lynch and Renjifo, 1990)  
                                  Species Rhinella vellardi (Leviton and Duellman, 1978)  
                                  Species Rhinella veraguensis (Schmidt, 1857)  
                                  Species Rhinella veredas (Brandăo, Maciel and Sebben, 2007)  
                                  Species Rhinella yanachaga Lehr, Pramuk, Hedges and Córdova, 2007  
                                  Species Rhinella yunga Moravec, Lehr, Cusi, Córdova and Gvozdík, 2014  
       

 References
       
  Expert(s):    
  Expert:    
  Notes:    
  Reference for:    
       
  Other Source(s):    
  Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v6, database (version 6.0)  
  Acquired: 2019   
  Notes: Frost, Darrel R. 2019. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (12 September, 2019). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA   
  Reference for: Rhinella   
       
  Publication(s):    
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Frank T. Burbrink, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed.  
  Publication Date: 2008   
  Article/Chapter Title: Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, With Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, Sixth Ed.   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Herpetological Circular No. 37   
  Page(s): 1-84   
  Publisher: Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles   
  Publication Place:    
  ISBN/ISSN: 0-916984-74-5   
  Notes: Available free as a PDF at http://ssarherps.org/pages/HerpCommNames.php   
  Reference for: Rhinella, South American Toads [English]   
       
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Crother, Brian I., Ronald M. Bonett, Jeff Boundy, Frank T. Burbrink, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed.  
  Publication Date: 2017   
  Article/Chapter Title: Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, Eighth Ed.   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Herpetological Circular, no. 43   
  Page(s): 102   
  Publisher:    
  Publication Place:    
  ISBN/ISSN: 978-1-946681-003   
  Notes: Available free as PDF, and as updated database, at https://ssarherps.org/publications/north-american-checklist/   
  Reference for: South American Toads[English]   
       

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