the itis logo The report logo for the ITIS data page
Go to Print Version

Toxolasma lividum  Rafinesque, 1831
Taxonomic Serial No.: 906920

(Download Help) Toxolasma lividum TSN 906920

 Taxonomy and Nomenclature
  Kingdom: Animalia  
  Taxonomic Rank: Species  
  Synonym(s): Toxolasma lividus Rafinesque, 1831
    Unio glans Lea, 1831
    Unio moestus Lea, 1841
  Common Name(s): purple lilliput [English]
  Taxonomic Status:    
  Current Standing: valid  
  Data Quality Indicators:    
  Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met  

 Taxonomic Hierarchy
 KingdomAnimalia  – Animal, animaux, animals  
             PhylumMollusca  – mollusques, molusco, molluscs, mollusks  
                ClassBivalvia Linnaeus, 1758 – bivalves, clams, bivalves, palourdes, bivalve, mexilhão, ostra  
                   SubclassPalaeoheterodonta Newell, 1965  
                      OrderUnionoida Stoliczka, 1871  
                         SuperfamilyUnionoidea Rafinesque, 1820  
                            FamilyUnionidae Rafinesque, 1820  
                               SubfamilyAmbleminae Rafinesque, 1820  
                                  TribeLampsilini Ihering, 1901  
                                     GenusToxolasma Rafinesque, 1831  
                                        SpeciesToxolasma lividum Rafinesque, 1831 – purple lilliput  

  Reference for:    
  Other Source(s):    
  Source: MUSSEL Project Web Site, website (version 08Aug2013)  
  Acquired: 2013   
  Notes: Graf, D.L. & K.S. Cummings. 2013. The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves), updated 8 August 2013. MUSSEL Project Web Site,   
  Reference for: Toxolasma lividum   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Graf, Daniel L., and Kevin S. Cummings  
  Publication Date: 2007   
  Article/Chapter Title: Review of the systematics and global diversity of freshwater mussel species (Bivalvia: Unionoida)   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 73, part 4   
  Page(s): 291-314   
  Publication Place:    
  ISBN/ISSN: 0260-1230   
  Notes: doi: 10.1093/mollus/eym029   
  Reference for: Toxolasma lividum   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Lee, Harry G.  
  Publication Date: 2006   
  Article/Chapter Title: Musings on a local specimen of Toxolasma paulum (I. Lea, 1840), the iridescent lilliput   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: The Shell-O-Gram, vol. 47, no. 5   
  Page(s): 3-6   
  Publication Place:    
  Notes: Available online at   
  Reference for: Toxolasma lividum   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Rafinesque, C. S. / Binney, Wm. G., and George W. Tryon, Jr., eds  
  Publication Date: 1864   
  Article/Chapter Title: Continuation of a monograph of the bivalve shells of the River Ontario, and other rivers of the western states   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: The Complete Writings of Constantine Smaltz Rafinesque on Recent & Fossil Conchology   
  Page(s): 69-87   
  Publisher: Bailliere Brothers   
  Publication Place: New York, New York, USA   
  Notes: A reprinting of Rafinesque's rare 1831 work is available online at   
  Reference for: Toxolasma lividum   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Williams, James D., Arthur E. Bogan, and Jeffrey T. Garner  
  Publication Date: 2008   
  Article/Chapter Title:    
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Freshwater Mussels of Alabama and the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi and Tennessee   
  Page(s): xv + 908   
  Publisher: The University of Alabama Press   
  Publication Place: Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA   
  ISBN/ISSN: 0-8173-1613-2   
  Notes: Sponsored by Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries   
  Reference for: Toxolasma lividum, purple lilliput [English]   
  Author(s)/Editor(s): Williams, James D., Melvin L. Warren, Kevin S. Cummings, John L. Harris, and Richard J. Neves  
  Publication Date: 1993   
  Article/Chapter Title: Conservation status of the freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada   
  Journal/Book Name, Vol. No.: Fisheries, vol. 18, no. 9   
  Page(s): 6-22   
  Publication Place:    
  Reference for: Toxolasma lividum   

 Geographic Information
  Geographic Division: North America  
  Jurisdiction/Origin: Continental US, Native  



  Comment: Gender (as neuter) is addressed by Lee (2006) and Williams et al. (2008:711). Original publication attributed to Rafinesque 1831, a rare, privately printed work that is not yet available online or in most libraries. It was republished in 1864, using original orthography. Therein (p.72), Unio is listed as a 'Tribe' after which is included '2. N.G. Toxolasma' with '79 sp. Unio lividus, (Toxolasma [lividus] 1822).' If the 1831 work is where the nominal taxon name lividus was made available, then it appears to be treating Toxolasma as the current genus, in which case the original combination is, by definition, Toxolasma lividus, despite the general confusion in the text  
    Widespread in the Interior Basin, excluding the upper Mississippi, USA  



 Subordinate Taxa  Rank  Verified Standards Met  Verified Min Standards Met  Unverified Percent Standards Met

A gray graphic bar
Search on:  Any Name or TSN  Common Name  Scientific Name  TSN
In:  Kingdom    

Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. While every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and up-to-date information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in provisions of treaties to which the United States is a party, wildlife statutes, regulations, and any applicable notices that have been published in the Federal Register. For further information on U.S. legal requirements with respect to protected taxa, please contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

A gray bar